蘋果電腦公司執行長Steve Jobs 對 2005 年史丹佛 畢業生演講
‘You’ve got to find what you love,’ Jobs says
This is the text of the Commencement address by Steve Jobs,
CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, delivered on June 12,
You’ve got to find what you love 你得找出你愛的
I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the
finest universities in the world.I never graduated from college. Truth be
told, this is the closest I’ve ever gotten to a college graduation.
Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That’s it. No big
deal. Just three stories.
The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months,but then stayed
around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So
why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed
college graduate student,and she decided to put me up for adoption. She
felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates,
so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his
wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that
they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a
call in the middle of the night asking:
“We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?” They said:
“Of course.” My biological mother later found out that my mother
graduated from collegeand that my father had never graduated from high
school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers.
She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would
someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that
was almost as expensive as Stanford,and all of my working-class parents’
savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I
couldn’t see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my
life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out.And here I
was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life.
So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was
pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions
I ever made.
The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that
didn’t interest me,and begin dropping in on the ones that looked
It wasn’t all romantic. I didn’t have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor
in friends’ rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5? deposits to buy food
with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get
one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it.
And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition
turned out to be priceless later on.
Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction
in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every
drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and
didn’t have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy
class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif
typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter
combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful,
historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can’t capture, and I
found it fascinating.
None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life.
But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer,
it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the
first computer with beautiful typography.
If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would
have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts.And since
Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would
have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on
this calligraphy class,and personal computers might not have the wonderful
typography that they do.
Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was
in college.But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect
them looking backwards.So you have to trust that the dots will somehow
connect in your future. You have to trust in something – your gut, destiny,
life, karma, whatever.This approach has never let me down, and it has made
all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.
I was lucky – I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started
Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years
Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion
company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation
– the Macintosh – a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got
How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we
hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me,
and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the
future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out.
When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And
very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was
gone, and it was devastating.
I really didn’t know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the
previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the baton as
it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried
to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I
even thought about running away from the valley.
But something slowly began to dawn on me – I still loved what I did.
The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been
rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was
the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being
successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again,
less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative
periods of my life.
During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company
named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my
wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature
film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the
world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I retuned to
Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple’s
current renaissance.And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.
I’m pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn’t been fired
from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed
it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don’t lose faith. I’m
convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I
did.You’ve got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as
it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your
life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is
And the only way to do great work is to love what you do.
If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle. As with all
matters of the heart, you’ll know when you find it. And, like any great
relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep
looking until you find it. Don’t settle.
My third story is about death.
When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like:
“If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you’ll most
be right.” It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33
years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself:
“If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am
to do today?” And whenever the answer has been “No” for
too many days in a
row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever
encountered to help me make the big choices in life.
Because almost everything – all external expectations, all pride, all fear
of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of
death, leaving only what is truly important.
Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the
trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There
is no reason not to follow your heart.
About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the
morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn’t even know
what a pancreas was.
The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is
incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six
My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is
doctor’s code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids
everything you thought you’d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a
few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will
be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.
I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy,
where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into
my intestines,put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the
tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they
viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it
turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with
surgery. I had the surgery and I’m fine now.
This was the closest I’ve been to facing death, and I hope its the closest
I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this
to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don’t want to die
to get there.
And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it.
And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best
invention of Life.
It is Life’s change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new.
Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will
gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but
it is quite true.
Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t
be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s
thinking. Don’t let the noise of other’s opinions drown out your own inner
And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition.
They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is
When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth
Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a
fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought
it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960’s, before
personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with
typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in
paperback form, 35 years before Google came along:
it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog,
and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the
mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a
photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find
yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous.
Beneath it were the words:
“Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.”
It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay
Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself.
And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.
Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.
You’ve got to find what you love 你得找出你愛的
我跑去學書法。我學了serif 與san serif 字體，學到在不同字母組合間變更字間
我見了創辦HP的David Packard跟創辦Intel的Bob Noyce，跟他們說我很抱歉把事情搞
在我年輕時，有本神奇的雜誌叫做 Whole Earth Catalog，當年我們很迷這本雜誌。
那是一位住在離這不遠的Menlo Park的Stewart Brand發行的，他把雜誌辦得很有詩
Stewart跟他的出版團隊出了好幾期Whole Earth Catalog，然後出了停刊號。
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